How the Space Race Fueled Innovation

Annotated Bibliography


Audio and Video

APOLLO SOYUZ :July 15, 1975. YouTube, 15 July 2008. Web. 23 Mar. 2010. <>. This NASA video provided an invaluable summary of the Apollo-Soyuz mission. This mission was very important because it was the first joint American-Soviet space mission, which marked the end of the Space Race.

One Small Step for Man, One Giant Leap for Mankind. Rec. 1969. 2009. Entertonement: Sounds, Sound Bites, Ringtones and Audio Clips. Entertainment, 1969. Web. 23 Mar. 2010. <>.This audio clip was very important because it helps to enhance the web site’s multi-media appeal. Hearing Neil Armstrong’s voice transports the listener back in time to 1969 when Armstrong spoke those unforgettable words.

President John F. Kennedy Space Race Moon Speech 1962. Dir. Dan Izzo. YouTube, 11 Apr. 2007. Web. 23 Mar. 2010. <>. This speech was one of the most important President John F. Kennedy ever made because it shows the power he had to direct public funds and win the hearts and minds of Americans as he pledged to put an American on the moon. We used this video clip as an eye-grabber to create a sense of time and place, while also making the site more interactive. 

Raising the American Flag on the Moon (HD). YouTube, 20 July 2009. Web. 11 Apr. 2010. <>.This video was helpful because it showed American dominance at the end of the Space Race and served as a summary for the web site’s moon race information.  It shows the lunar module and astronauts in action on the moon to bring home the incredible feat the United States achieved.

Rotating Earth from Galileo. YouTube, 19 May 2007. Web. 23 Mar. 2010. <>. This primary source video aided us in the construction of the Legacy of the Space Race page. This video also shows how exciting it must have been to see the Earth from space and how the view of the world changed because people saw the beauty and fragility of the atmosphere surrounding the planet we live on.

Tang Commercial 1967. YouTube, 8 Aug. 2007. Web. 23 Mar. 2010. <>. This original Tang commercial creates a sense of time and place as it transports the audience to the 1960s with its jaunty jingle, bold bubble lettering, and happy baseball-playing family members. This provides a window into the culture of the time period in which the Space Race occurred.  

Interviews Our Team Conducted

Ford, Holland. "Interviewing Professor Holland Ford." Personal interview. 20 Dec. 2009. The interview we conducted with Professor Ford of Johns Hopkins University helped us to build the “Potential Technologies” page and the “Highlights of the Space Race” page of the web site. This interview helped us to better understand the legacy of the Space Race today, which includes robotics, surveillance, and computing power.

Mulcher, Max. “Interviewing Max Mulcher.” Personal Interview. 20 Dec. 2009. This interview was useful in helping us to understand the effects of the Space Race in general, and specifically, how it led to the Hubble Space Telescope, one of the most powerful telescopes in space. Also, Mr. Mulcher talked about how the Space Race, even today, continues to influence space technologies such as robotics, space probes, space imaging and space telescopes. Mr. Mulcher works at the
Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI),

Peterson, Karla. “Interviewing Karla Peterson.” Personal Interview. 14 Feb. 2010. As a person who helps people solve problems with modern technology, Ms. Peterson shared her insights about how the Space Race influenced today’s technology. In addition, she introduced us to her colleague, Mark Postman, at the
Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), who we also then interviewed.

Postman, Mark. “Interviewing Mark Postman.” Personal Interview. 14 Feb. 2010. This perceptive, knowledgeable astronomer and space optics expert at the
Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), helped us understand the effects of the Space Race. In particular, Mr. Postman explained how the Space Race influences what scientists, like him, do in their work every day. This interview, like all the others, helped us develop our “Potential Technologies” on the web site. 



Smithsonian Institution, Air and Space Museum. 23 December 2009. We traveled to the Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., which provided us inspiration and insight into the Space Race and why it was so important to the United States. This trip was integral to the creation of the website itself because it gave us ideas on how to organize and prioritize the content. The information we gathered was helpful to develop the “Setting the Stage” page, “Timeline,” and “Highlights of the Space Race” page. 



"Apollo 11 Mission to the Moon." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <>. This photograph of a crowd of onlookers at the Apollo 11 liftoff conveyed the excitement Americans felt about the Apollo mission that reached the moon. We used the image on the “Legacy of the Space Race” page to convey the strong sense of nationalism Americans felt about this event.

AV, Diaz. "Dreams, Hopes, Realities." SP-4312 Dreams, Hopes, Realities. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, May 1999. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <>.This image of Robert Goddard using a vacuum tube to test for rocket efficiency was integral to our “Setting the Stage” page because it gave a feeling of immediacy—as though you were right next to Goddard as he conducted this experiment. We also used the photograph of the V-2 rocket on the “Highlights of the Space Race” page to show how much this rocket influenced U.S. and Soviet space programs.

"BBC ON THIS DAY | 2 | 1966: First US Space Probe Lands on Moon."" Online Posting. BBC NEWS | News Front Page. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 2008. Web. 20 Jan. 2010. <>. This image shows the first U.S. space probe on the moon, which was a milestone in the Space Race for the “Timeline” page. This helped to convey in words and image that the U.S. was on track to reach moon while the U.S.S.R. far behind in achieving this goal.

Bonnell, Jerry, and Robert Neriroff. "APOD: 2001 May 5 - Shepard Flies Freedom 7." Astronomy Picture of the Day: 2001 May 5. National Science Foundation, 5 May 2001. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <>. This source was very important to us because it clarified information we had and corrected it so we did not have false information. We had thought that John Glenn flew the Freedom 7, but we found this was wrong and this image provided the information needed to correct our mistake.

Curry, Marty. Dr. Hugh L. Dryden. 1963. Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, 2009. Dryden Flight Research Center. Web<> The second picture of Dr. Hugh L. Dryden aided us by conveying how topical his statements were to space technology and the Space Race. In addition, this helped show that not everyone had the same views on the future of space and that Mr. Dryden was ahead of his time.

Daniel S. Goldin. 1992. Daniel S. Goldin. NASA Great Images in NASA Collection, 2001. Web. 5/3/10.  <;lc:NVA2~31~31, NVA2~63~63,NVA2~30~30,NVA2~62~62,NVA2~4~4,NVA2~61~61,NVA2~60~60,nasaNAS~22~22,NVA2~19~19,nasaNAS~20~20,NVA2~18~18,NVA2~17~17,NVA2~49~49,NVA2~16~16,NVA2~8~8,NVA2~48~48,NVA2~15~15,NVA2~47~47,NVA2~9~9,NVA2~14~14,NVA2~79~79,NVA2~46~46,NVA2~13~13,NVA2~45~45,NVA2~44~44,NVA2~76~76,NVA2~43~43,NVA2~75~75,NVA2~42~42,nasaNAS~2~2,NVA2~41~41,nasaNAS~4~4,NSVS~3~3,nasaNAS~5~5,NVA2~29~29,nasaNAS~6~6,NVA2~28~28,nasaNAS~7~7,NVA2~27~27,NVA2~59~59,NVA2~26~26,NVA2~58~58,nasaNAS~8~8,NVA2~25~25,NVA2~57~57,NVA2~24~24,nasaNAS~9~9,NVA2~56~56,NVA2~23~23,NVA2~55~55,NVA2~22~22,NVA2~54~54,NVA2~21~21,NVA2~53~53,nasaNAS~16~16,NVA2~20~20,NVA2~52~52,NVA2~51~51,nasaNAS~13~13,NVA2~50~50,nasaNAS~12~12,nasaNAS~10~10,NVA2~32~32,NVA2~33~33,NVA2~34~34,NVA2~1~1,NVA2~35~35,NVA2~36~36,NVA2~37~37,NVA2~38~38,NVA2~39~39,NVA2~80~80&mi=0&trs=9>. Daniel S. Goldin’s picture assisted us in showing how technology has changed up to the modern period. Also this picture tries to help connect the viewer back to the modern period instead of just in the past.

"Fifth Modern C&GS Officer Training Class on Board the C&GS Ship EXPLORER, July 21, 1961." NOAA Photo Library - HOME. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2009 Sept. 30. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <>. This image of the early Weather Bureau staff provided a sense of the youthful enthusiasm of this new organization—and how small it was then. We used it on the “The Legacy of the Space Race” page to show and tell how the Weather Bureau has changed from this small, amateurish-looking operation to the high-tech National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that exists today.

Garber, Steve. With Heads of Space Agencies of International Space Station. 1998. goldin_iga_group72.jpg Administrator Goldin's Photo Gallery, 2001.<>. While providing a global perspective to the website, the photograph of Daniel S. Goldin with heads of the space agencies around the world helps bring new light to the website. Also this picture connects the reader with a modern aspect of Space Technology, the International Space Station.

GPN-2002-000105.jpg. 2002. Hugh L. Dryden. Great Images in NASA, 2004. Web. 10 May 2010. <>. The picture of Hugh L. Dryden helped us show how much expertise Mr. Dryden had. Also it helped get people accustomed with the time period of the Space Race and helped get viewers interested in the content while seeing who Mr. Dryden was in terms of the Space Race.

Lindborg, Christina. "CORUNA (1960-1972)." N3krozoft, 1997. Web. 6 Feb. 2010. <>. This source provided us an image of the U.S. Coruna spy satellite and information we needed for the “Highlights of the Space Race” page. This author also provided invaluable information about the Coruna and how it affected space technology, which also helped us develop “The Legacy of the Space Race” page.

Rudister, Anthony. "Cold War Spy Satellite Program Declassified: Poppy Craft Spied Down on Soviet Forces." The Avion Newspaper. Viacom International Inc., 5 Nov. 2005. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <>. The picture of the Cold War spy satellite codenamed Poppy was very important because it showed a primitive, early satellite. We used it on “The Legacy of the Space Race” page to convey how satellites have advanced over time.

"Saturn V." Encyclopedia Astronautica. Ed. Mark Wade. 2000. Web. 23 Mar. 2010. <>. The author’s account of the evolution of the Saturn 5 over time helped us to understand how important the Saturn 5 was in terms of space technology. Also, this website provided us with many pictures to choose from. We used just one on “The Highlights of the Space Race” page.

Sputnik.jpg. 1957. Photograph. Sputnik.jpg. University of Colorado, 2007. Web. 11 Jan. 2010. <>. The picture of Sputnik helped us to clearly understand the great technological advances in space technology.  We were amazed that such a small satellite—the size of beach ball—could make such a big splash in the world.

Steven, Garber. "Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Mission Patch." NASA History Division: APOLLO-SOYUZ TEST PROJECT MISSION PATCH. National Aeronautics and Space Administration., 27 Nov. 2009. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <>. Although this source only included an image of the patch used for the Apollo-Soyuz mission, it was useful to have an image to use for our “Timeline” page.


Written Documents

Braun, Wernher Von. "From Von Braun to Vice President in 1961." Letter to Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ). 29 Apr. 1961. Apollo: A Retrospective Analysis. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Web. 3 Feb. 2010. < apollo3.pdf>  This letter from Wernher Von Braun to President Kennedy in 1961 helped us to understand the different views of the Space Race at the time. It also shed light on why the U.S. didn’t want to charge Von Braun for his Nazi war crimes. We used it on the “Setting the Stage” page.

Dryden, Hugh L. “Graduate Education and Research In Science: Investment For The Future In An Age Of Space Exploration.” 12 Dec. 1963. Address. Friends of the Belfer Graduate School of Science, New York. 12 Dec. 1963 NASA Historical Archives. Web. 5 May 2010.<>. This source not only told us about NASA’s perspective of space exploration at the time, but explained how NASA thought space exploration would go forward. Also, it helped us understand that even in the beginnings of NASA, the administrators still had to justify to the public and to the U.S. government that the money given to them was being used wisely. In addition, this helped us understand the perspective of space technology in a new way.

Dryden, Hugh L. “Science And Engineering in the Space Age,” Luncheon talk, 1960 National Summer Meeting, Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences. 29 June. 1960. NASA HQ Historical Reference Collection. Web. 5.7.10 < 41137.pdf?rpp=20&upp=0&m=86&w=NATIVE%28%27KEYWORDS+ph+is+%27%27Space%27%27%27%29&r=1&order=native%28%27SERIES%27%29> This document aided us in numerous ways. It helped expand our “Legacy of the Space Race” page, “Setting the Stage Page” and “Future of Space” page. This document gave us a new perspective on the Space Race and its effect on the world.

Goldin, Daniel S. “Opening the Front Door: A New Approach To Space Technology And Commercialization.” Washington Space Business Roundtable. 10 November 1992. NASA Historical Reference Collection. Web. 5 May 2010. < 19022?rpp=20&upp=0&m=293&w=NATIVE%28%27KEYWORDS+ph+is+%27%27Space%27%27%27%29&r=1&order=native%28%27SERIES%27%29>. This document helped illuminate Daniel S. Goldin’s words “NASA pioneered fault-tolerant software and vast computer networks over long distances.” Also, this source shows how some of the NASA administrators and others in government were thinking beyond the bounds of the Cold War and into the future of commercialization in space.

Goldin, Daniel S. “Remarks Given By Daniel Goldin, NASA Administrator at George Washington University. Reinventing NASA Conference Held by the National Space Society.” 10 March 1994. NASA Historical Reference Collection. Web.  6 May 2010. <>. These remarks by Mr. Goldin, exemplified what was NASA’s stance shortly after the end of the Cold War. Also, he talked about the future of space and how important the space program is to America’s prestige. This assisted us with the Future of the Space page and the Legacy of the Space Race page.

Goldin, Daniel S. “Space Agencies in the Commercial Age.”  7 October 1997. NASA Historical Reference Collection. Web.  6 May 2010. <>. This conference in Turin, Italy helped show once again what was NASA’s stance on space after the end of the Cold War. In turn this document showed how space agencies will change in the modern era to cope with commercialization in space. This helped us tie in directly with the viewer more recent events such as President Obama’s speech in Cape Canaveral only a few months ago.
Kennedy, John F. "Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs." Address. Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs. U.S. Congress, Washington D.C. 25 May 1961. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Web. 20 Dec. 2009. <> This original speech given by President John F. Kennedy to Congress in May 1961 helped us understand  President Kennedy’s role as a visionary of his time. We learned that half of the innovations spawned by the Space Race were mentioned by President Kennedy in this speech. In addition, the speech set forth  President Kennedy’s objectives, while it helped us better understand the attitudes of the government toward the Soviets.

National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, NASA Historical Reference Collection (National Aeronautics and Space Administration 1958). Print. Web. 30 Dec. 2009. html>  This original document was helpful in understanding why NASA was created and why lawmakers thought it was so important at the time. It was very interesting to see the document itself and understand why it was so important in the scheme of the Space Race itself, since NASA was created just one year into the Space Race. This document was only used as background, but it helped us understand the attitudes of the government regarding space after a Soviet victory in launching Sputnik.




Black, Jeremy. World History Atlas: Mapping the Human Journey. Melbourne: Dorling Kindersley, 2005. Pages 102, 106-7, 108-110, 138-139 and 212-215. Print. This source provided an impressive history of the Cold War and the Space Race through visuals along with short paragraphs. This source helped us understand the big picture of the Cold War, not just the Space Race. This background helped us develop the “Timeline” and “The Legacy of the Space Race” pages. 

Barraclough, Geoffrey. The Times Concise Atlas of World History, New Jersey: Hammond Incorporated, 1982.  Pages 136-141 and 148-9. Print. The author uses a nice blend of words and visuals for an easy-to-read history of the Space Race and the Cold War. This source provided a basic summary of how the Cold War influenced what happened in the Space Race.
 Fargis, Paul. American History Desk Reference, New York: The Stonesong Press Inc., 1997. Pages 254-8, 266, 351, 353 and 381-8. Print. From this book we got an impressive overview of the Space Race and the important events that occurred in the Space Race. This book gave us detailed descriptions of events and a summary of the Space Race in 16 pages, which helped us better understand the political and cultural climate of the time. 

Daniel, Clifton. Chronicle of America, New York: Chronicle Publications, Inc., 1988. Pages 776, 778, 793-9. Print. As the author assembled the book as a newspaper and the pages we used are presented from the vantage point of those who lived at the time of the Space Race. That was very useful because it helped us see how important space was to Americans at that time. This also bolstered the development of “The Highlights of the Space Race” and “The Setting the Stage” page. 

Marshall, Richard. Great Events of the 20th Century, United States of America: The Reader’s Digest Association Inc., 1977. Pages 420-429, 490-1 and 498-503. Print. This book gave a synopsis of the moon race, the launching of Sputnik, and of the whole Space Race itself. This book was different than the others because it reprints accounts from periodicals of the time, providing a snapshot from the perspective of the mass media of the day.

Roberts, Andrew. A History of the English-speaking Peoples since 1900, New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007. Pages 483-485 and 499. Print. From this book we learned a different viewpoint from the some of the other authors by telling the history in a way that was easy to follow and understand. This book also told stories about the Cold War and the Space Race which were not in the other books.

Online Sources

Balogh, Andre. "Above and Beyond: The Apollo Space Race to the Moon." HistoryToday. 2003. Web. 11 Dec. 2009. <>. This article was a great summary of important events in the Space Race, which we used in creating the “Timeline” and “Highlights of the Space Race” pages.

Bryner, Glenn. "A Tribute to Robert H Goddard--Rocket Scientist and Space Pioneer."  2009. 
30 Nov. 2009. <> This source was useful in learning the story of Robert Goddard’s life. This source helped us with the “Setting the Stage” page.  

Dow, Peter. "Sputnik Revisited: Historical Perspectives on Science Reform." National Science Foundation. 1997. 20 Dec. 2009. <> This source helped us to  develop “The Legacy of the Space Race” page and gave us insight about how science was promoted in public school curricula because of the Space Race. It gave an extraordinary account of how this happened, why the government gave funding for it, and how it still affects our schools today.

Fiore, C. “Inventions from the NASA Space Program.” Associated Content. 16 June 2009. 25 March 2010.  <> This source was helpful because it was another corroborating source for the “Legacy of the Space Race” page by showing numerous inventions spawned by the Space Race. 

Garber, Steve. “Sputnik and the Dawn of the Space Age.” National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2009. 30 Nov. 2009 <> We used this source to help us understand why Sputnik was so important to America and how this tiny object launched by the Soviets could have so much impact on the world. Also this source gave us background of what led up to the launching of Sputnik, which helped us on the “Setting the Stage,” “Timeline,” and “Highlights of the Space Race” pages. 

“Inventions From Space.” National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2010. 25 March 2020. <> This website by NASA helped us realize the many inventions from space technology that have influenced other parts of our society as well as showing how these innovations have changed the world. We used this in the “The Legacy of the Space Race” page.

Sam, Jim. “Technological Spinoffs of the Space Race.” <
spin.shtml> This author helped us to see some of the technological innovations. It also provided an overview of all the innovations from the Space Race.

“Spinoff 2008 Highlights NASA innovations in Everyday Life” 2008. 27 March 2010. <> This news article provided more innovations from the Space Race that we did not find elsewhere, which helped us with “The Legacy of the Space Race” page. 

"The Internal Space Race" <> The author’s use of pictures along with a story made the information easy to follow. Information from this source was helpful in the “Highlights of the Space Race” page. "The Space Race Begins" <> This source was helpful because it had a different perspective than the other sources, which reported that the Space Race was for military purposes at the beginning. This article points out that the Space Race was started during a scientific event and Sputnik’s purpose was for science not for military purposes. Information from this source assisted us the creation of the “Timeline” and the “Setting the Stage” pages.

“The Space Race" <> This source gave us a broad overview of the Space Race itself. This website had a timeline of the Space Race which helped us create our own timeline on our website and gave us some ideas of what to include.

 Whalen, David J. "Communications Satellites: Making the Global Village Possible"
<> This website was helpful in the “Legacy of the Space Race” page by telling us how important satellites are and how it all began with the Space Race.

Photographs "Royal Garrison School Photos” <> We used a photograph of a classroom from the 1950s-1960s in our “Legacy of the Space Race” page. This picture illustrated that math was better integrated into school curriculatoday because of the Space Race.  

“Top 10 Space Race Spin-Offs” <> This provided information about inventions from the Space Race, like filtered water and invisible braces. We also used a photograph of the MRI and CAT scans on “The Legacy of the Space Race” page.

Uncultured. “Clean & Safe Drinking by Save the Children USA” <
uncultured/2840912043/> We learned how important the Space Race innovation of better water filters has saved many lives in countries where potable drinking water is not readily available. We used a photograph of two boys drinking from a filtered water tap for “The Legacy of the Space Race” page.

Webster, Guy. "NASA Expands Rover Science Team" <
merf-2005-10-19.html> This source provided an image of a computer model of what a Mars Rover looks like. Of course, it is not the Mars Rover itself because it can’t take a photograph of itself. We used this image of “The Legacy of the Space Race” page.